We have previously hypothesized that the osteopenic changes seen in the skeletons of old male BALB/c mice are due to reductions in the availability and/or synthesis of bone TGF-beta which results in fewer, less osteogenic marrow osteoprogenitor cells (CFU-f; OPCs) and lower levels of bone formation. Among other things, this hypothesis would predict that introducing exogenous TGF-beta into old mice (growth factor replacement) should stimulate marrow CFU-f and increase bone formation. In the present study, we have tested this prediction and, indirectly the hypothesis, by injecting human recombinant TGF-beta1, i.p., into both young adult (4 month) and old mice (24 month). The effects of the growth factor on the skeleton were then assessed by measurements of trabecular bone volume, bone formation, fracture healing, and the number, proliferative, apoptotic, and alkaline phosphatase activity of marrow CFU-f/OPCs. Our data show that the introduction of 0.5 or 5.0 ug/day of TGF-beta1 into old mice for 20 days 1) increases trabecular bone volume, bone formation and the mineral apposition rate, 2) augments fracture healing, 3) increases the number and size of CFU-f colonies, and 4) increases proliferation and diminishes apoptosis of CFU-f in primary bone marrow cultures. Importantly, these stimulatory effects of injected growth factor are apparently age-specific, i.e., they are either not seen in young animals or, if seen, are found at much lower levels. While these observations do not exclude other possible mechanisms for the osteopenia of old mice, they provide further support for the hypothesis that, with age, diminished TGF-beta synthesis or availability results in a reduction in the marrow osteoprogenitor pool and bone formation. The findings also demonstrate that the latter changes can be reversed, at least transiently, by introducing exogenous TGF-beta1.
One of the universal characteristics of the long bones and spines of middle-age and older mammals is a loss in bone mass (osteopenia). In humans, if this bone loss is severe enough, it results in osteoporosis, a skeletal disorder characterized by a markedly increased incidence of fractures with sequelae that may include pain, loss of mobility, and in the event of hip fracture, even death within a relatively few months of injury. An important contributing factor to the development of osteoporosis appears to be a diminution in the number and activity of osteoblasts responsible for synthesizing new bone matrix. The findings in the present and other similar studies suggest that this reduction in osteoblast number and activity is due to an age-related diminution in the size and osteogenic potential of the bone marrow osteoblast progenitor cell (OPC or CFU-f) compartment. We previously postulated that these regressive changes in the OPC/CFU-f compartment occurred in old animals because of a reduction in the amount and/or activity of TGF-beta1, an autocrine growth factor important in the promotion of OPC/CFU-f proliferation and differentiation. In support of this hypothesis, we now report that (1) the osteogenic capacity of the bone marrow of 24-month-old BALB/c mice, as assessed in vivo, is markedly reduced relative to that of 3-4-month-old animals, (2) that the matrix of the long bones of old mice contains significantly less TGF-beta than that of young mice, (3) that OPC's/CFU-f's isolated from old mice produce less TGF-beta in vitro than those recovered from young mice, and (4) that OPC's/CFU-f's from old mice express significantly more TGF-beta receptor (Types I, II, and III) than those of young animals and that such cells are more responsive in vitro to exogenous recombinant TGF-beta1. We also find that colony number and proliferative activity of OPC's/CFU-f's of young mice and old mice, respectively, are significantly reduced when incubated in the presence of neutralizing TGF-beta1 antibody. Collectively, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that in old male mice the reduction in the synthesis and, perhaps, availability from the bone matrix of TGF-beta1 contributes to a diminution in the size and development potential of the bone marrow osteoprogenitor pool.
A case of internal coronal resorption in a maxillary first permanent molar of a young adult is described. Conservative treatment was done, which included endodontic therapy followed by coronal restoration with bonded composites. The importance of early diagnosis and treatment of the resorptive defect is stressed.
Osteoblasts arise from partially differentiated osteogenic progenitor cells (OPCs) which in turn arise from undifferentiated marrow stromal mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). It has been postulated that age-related defects in osteoblast number and function may be due to quantitative and qualitative stem cell defects. To examine this possibility, we compared osteogenic stem cell number and in vitro function in marrow cells from 4-month-old and 24-month-old male BALB/c mice. Histologic studies demonstrated that these mice undergo age-related bone loss resembling that seen in humans. In primary MSC cultures grown in media supplemented with 10 nM dexamethasone, cultures from older animals yielded an average of 41% fewer OPC colonies per given number of marrow cells plated (p < 0.001). This implies that for a given number of marrow cells there are fewer stem cells with osteogenic potential in older animals than there are in younger animals. The basal proliferative rate in cultures from older animals, as measured by 3H-thymidine uptake, was more than three times that observed in cultures from young animals (p < 0.005). However, the increase in proliferative response to serum stimulation was 10-fold in the younger cultures (p <0.001) and insignificant (p <0.4) in the older cultures. Colonies in both age groups became alkaline phosphatase positive at the same rate, and virtually all colonies were positive after 12 days of culture. Cultures from both age groups produced abundant type I collagen. These studies suggest that defects in the number and proliferative potential of MSCs may underlie age-related defects in osteoblast number and function.
A patient with Hodgkin's disease (HD) underwent autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT). Six months later while receiving interleukin (IL)-2 and alpha-interferon immunotherapy, he developed a painful lesion in his oral cavity with a fistula in the buccal area. Excision biopsy disclosed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with acid-fast bacillus. The patient received a 9-month course of isoniazide, rifampin and pyrazinamide, and recovered. The possible pathophysiological mechanism is discussed.
The osteogenic growth peptide (OGP) was characterized recently in regenerating bone marrow (BM) and normal serum. In vitro, the OGP regulates stromal-cell proliferation and differentiated functions. In vivo, an increase in serum OGP accompanies the osteogenic phase of postablation BM regeneration. The present results in normal mice show that OGP induces a balanced increase in WBC counts and overall BM cellularity. In mice receiving myeloablative irradiation and syngeneic or semiallogeneic BM transplants, OGP stimulates hematopoietic reconstruction and doubles the survival rate; these effects are dependent on initiating the OGP administration before irradiation. Chimerism measurements in semiallogeneic graft recipients suggest no preferential effect of OGP on residual host cells. The data implicate OGP in the acceleration of hematopoiesis secondary to expansion of the stromal microenvironment and/or enhancement of stroma-derived signals to stem cells. The low-dose effectiveness of OGP is explained by the demonstration of an autocrine positive feedback loop that together with the OGP-binding protein sustains high serum levels of the peptide. A potential OGP-based treatment in combination with chemoradiotherapy is attractive because of the OGP-induced balanced multi-lineage enhancement of hematopoiesis and possible replacement of expensive recombinant cytokines by a readily synthesized peptide.
The osteopenia associated with advanced age appears to be a universal phenomenon in humans and animals, but the mechanisms by which it occurs are understood incompletely. However, the explanation must lie in an absolute or relative diminution in the level of osteoblastic bone-forming activity when compared with osteoclastic bone-resorbing activity. The authors postulated that with old age there would be a reduction in the number or function or both of osteoblastic stem cells that could account for part of the diminution in bone formation. They further postulated that there would be either no change or an increase in osteoclastic potential and bone resorption. To test these concepts, bone marrow cells were isolated from 4- to 6-month-old or 24-month-old mice and cultured in vitro under a variety of circumstances that permitted an assessment of the stromal osteogenic cells and marrow hemopoietic progenitor cells belonging to the monocyte and osteoclast series. These data show a marked reduction in the number and in vitro activity of stromal osteogenic cells from old animals. There is an increase in old mice in the number of marrow cells capable of forming osteoclasts in coculture and responsive to the growth factors believed operational in the monocyte and osteoclast series. The authors now are exploring the hypothesis that an age-related diminution in transforming growth factor-beta levels is responsible for these changes in progenitor cell levels in marrow and their functional status as expressed in vitro.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The commonly used method of preparing the temporal bone for light microscopy is a refinement of a basic formula that has been employed for a century. This process includes fixation, decalcification, neutralization, dehydration, embedding in celloidin, and hardening. The main disadvantage of this process is that decalcification is performed. This article describes a new method for preparing the temporal bone of rats for light microscopy. The main advantage of this new method is that no decalcification is involved, so that all bony elements are retained in their normal shape and location, and even retain some enzymatic activity. Other advantages are that the fixation is reversible and the process is short (approximately 2 weeks) and therefore relatively inexpensive. Our vast and positive experience with this technique has led us to report this method not in a specific experiment, but rather as a specific laboratory technique.
Immunohistochemically detectable levels of p53 may be seen early in the malignant transformation of some neoplasms. To determine if p53 is immunocytochemically detectable, and therefore presumptively abnormal, in oral dysplasias and in situ carcinomas, and to explore the natural history of p53 protein expression in these lesions, sequential biopsies from patients with lesions occurring in the same anatomic site were examined. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections from 19 patients were evaluated immunohistochemically for p53 protein using antibody clones Pab1801 and BP53-12. With two exceptions, comparable results were observed with these antibodies. p53 protein was detected immunocytochemically in 6 of 13 patients with dysplasias; 3 of these progressed to p53-positive invasive carcinoma, one advanced to a more severe grade of p53-positive dysplasia, one developed into a p53-negative verrucous carcinoma, and one represented a p53-positive dysplasia developing five years after treatment of a p53-positive carcinoma. The p53-positive dysplasias, which were found in all subtypes (mild, moderate, severe), preceded histologic malignant change by months to years. p53 detection was evident in 4 of 6 patients with in situ lesions. Sequential biopsies of three of these lesions showed no change in lesion histology or p53 staining, and one lesion advanced to a p53-positive carcinoma. It is concluded that p53 protein may be detected early in the development of a subset of p53-positive oral squamous cell carcinomas. This phenomenon may be seen in dysplasias and in situ lesions, and it may have prognostic implications.
Immunohistochemistry and melanin bleaching were used to assess the expression of antigens identified by anti-S-100 and anti-HMB-45 antibodies on melanomas and intramucosal and blue nevi from the oral mucosa of 18 patients. Both antibodies reacted with cells in all three types of lesions, but there were differences in the expression of these antigens between the round and spindle cells within the lesions. In melanomas composed of round cells, the intensity and distribution of staining with HMB-45 was greater than with S-100. The opposite was true in melanomas composed of spindle-shaped cells, and one spindle-cell melanoma was HMB-45-negative. The round cells of intramucosal nevi expressed S-100 more intensely and more frequently than HMB-45. The spindle-shaped cells of blue nevi strongly expressed both S-100 and HMB-45. Whereas intradermal nevi from the skin do not express HMB-45, intramucosal nevi consistently express this antigen in the lesion and overlying mucosa. Oral melanomas composed of round and spindle-shaped cells show differences in their expression of S-100 and HMB-45 antigens, making the use of both antibodies complementary in the diagnosis of undifferentiated tumors.
We have evaluated the effects of retinoic acid as a differentiating agent on two pluripotential mesenchymal stem cell lines, the mouse cell line C3H-10T1/2 (10T1/2), which has the capacity to differentiate in vitro into myoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts, and the rat cell line ROB-C26 (C26), which can, in culture, give rise to adipocytes, myoblasts, and osteoblasts. Retinoic acid (10(-6) M) reduces the incidence of myoblast and adipocyte formation and induces or increases alkaline phosphatase expression and responsiveness to PTH, two indicators of the osteoblastic phenotype. Because transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) superfamily members, including the different TGF beta isoforms and the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), are thought to play a role in regulating bone and cartilage formation, and because exogenous TGF beta and BMP-2 have already been found to modulate osteoblastic differentiation of C26 and 10T1/2 cells, we evaluated the endogenous expression of these factors in both cell lines cultured in the presence or absence of retinoic acid. Our data show that C26 and 10T1/2 cells constitutively express a broad spectrum of TGF beta superfamily members. However, this pattern of expression is dramatically altered in response to retinoic acid. Specifically, expression of TGF beta 1 and especially TGF beta 2 is strongly increased, whereas TGF beta 3 expression is down-regulated. These changes are accompanied by a striking decline in TGF beta receptor expression levels at the cell surface. Furthermore, BMP-2 and -4 expression are decreased after treatment with retinoic acid, whereas vgr-1/BMP-6 expression is induced in C26 cells, but decreased in 10T1/2 cells. These results clearly show a dynamic changing pattern of TGF beta superfamily expression consequent to the induction of osteogenic differentiation and provide the first indication that TGF beta receptor down-regulation may be an essential part of this differentiation process. These data also establish the C26 and 10T1/2 cell lines as convenient in vitro model systems for exploring the autoregulation of osteogenic differentiation by members of the TGF beta superfamily.
Three stages of osteogenic differentiation can be identified in in vivo diffusion chamber cultures (DCC) of unselected marrow cells, namely, proliferation, differentiation, and maturation (mineralization). These stages were characterized correlatively by in situ differential cell counts, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineral accumulation. In the present study, the ultrastructure of marrow cell DCC was examined after incubation for 3-21 days. Features characteristic of osteoblastic and chondroblastic differentiation were first noted in 12 day DCC. Sites of osteoblastic differentiation showed cell-cell contacts associated with an increased cell density. The osteoblastic cells had long processes and were embedded in matrix with prominent fiber bundles reminiscent of collagen type I. The chondroblastic cells appeared solitary in areas of lesser cell density. By contrast to the long osteoblastic cell processes, they had short plasmalemmal projections and the matrix surrounding them contained single, thin, short fibers reminiscent of collagen type II, as well as proteoglycan granules. Both cell types showed prominent cytoskeletal elements, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi. One finding, previously unnoted in differentiating osteogenic cells, was mitochondria with condensed cristae that represent an increased rate of energy metabolism. These mitochondria were particularly abundant in the differentiation stage and declined as the cultures matured. These findings, together with previous reports in the epiphyseal growth plate, suggest that mineralization is associated with an optimal level of energy metabolism rather than extreme hypo- or hyperoxia. The set of ultrastructural parameters defined here in the marrow cell DCC may serve as useful markers for cells undergoing osteogenic differentiation.
Significant osteoporosis determined by skeleton radiography and bone densitometry was found in 15 patients with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) whose mean age was 31 +/- 11 years. In three CTX patients, bone biopsies confirmed osteoporosis. Nine patients also sustained bone fractures following minimal trauma. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D ([25-OHD] 14.6 +/- 6.6 ng/mL v [normal] 30.4 +/- 8.0 ng/mL; P < .001) and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D ([24,25(OH)2D] 1.2 +/- 0.4 ng/mL v [normal] 2.7 +/- 0.8 ng/mL; P < .001) levels were low. Serum concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, and calcitonin were normal. Patients showed classic manifestations of CTX, including dementia, pyramidal and cerebellar insufficiency, peripheral neuropathy, cataracts, and tendon xanthomas associated with elevated serum cholestanol concentrations. These results demonstrate that extensive osteoporosis and increased risk of bone fractures are components of this inherited disease.
An increasing body of experimental data suggests a role for 24,25(OH)2D3 in bone metabolism. The present study was carried out to assess a possible therapeutic role of this vitamin D metabolite in renal osteodystrophy. Twenty-two chronic dialysis patients, most of whom were previously maintained on 1 alpha (OH)D3 therapy, received additional treatment with 10 micrograms/day 24,25(OH)2D3 and were compared to 19 patients receiving 1 alpha (OH)D3 alone. Analysis of transiliac bone biopsies obtained at study entry and following 10-16 months of treatment revealed that the combined therapy produced a decrease in bone turnover. Specifically, the addition of 24,25(OH)2D3 inhibited an increase in trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) and suppressed osteoclastic parameters. Thus BV/TV increased from 26.2 +/- 8.6 to 32.1 +/- 7.5% (p < 0.01) in the 1 alpha (OH)D3 group, but it remained unchanged in the combined therapy group. In contrast, the eroded surface (ES/BS), the osteoclast surface (Oc.S/BS), and the osteoclast numbers were significantly suppressed in patients receiving both 24,25(OH)2D3 and 1 alpha (OH)D3, as compared with those receiving 1 alpha (OH)D3 alone (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, and p < 0.001, respectively). These improvements were independent of changes in 1 alpha (OH)D3 dosage. The extent of bone aluminium deposits was unrelated to the administration of 24,25(OH)2D3 or to its effect. 24,25(OH)2D3 therapy was not associated with any adverse effects.
Although much is known about the hormonal regulation of osteoblastic cell differentiation, much less is known about the nuclear regulatory molecules that affect this process. We analyzed the expression of several regulatory molecules of the helix-loop-helix (H-L-H) group in primary mouse calvarial cells and in MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblastic cells in situations representing different degrees of cellular differentiation. H-L-H class regulators are known to participate directly in directing cell fate and differentiation decisions in other mesodermal lineages. Two of the molecules that we studied, Id and E12, have well-established roles in this process. The other, mTwi, the murine homolog of the Drosophila twist gene, is a newly cloned mammalian H-L-H gene. Levels of E12 RNA remained unchanged during differentiation. On the other hand, in both primary osteoblastic cells and MC3T3-E1 cells, the abundance of Id and mTwi declined with cell maturation; mTwi less dramatically than Id. That Id expression is causally related to differentiation is suggested by the finding that MC3T3-E1 cells transfected with an Id-expression plasmid fail to undergo differentiation. We conclude that helix-loop-helix regulatory genes are expressed in mouse osteoblastic cells, where they are likely to participate in differentiation. The E12 gene product is likely to function as a positive modulating factor. In contrast, Id inhibits differentiation, probably by sequestering other H-L-H gene regulators, including E12, in inactive complexes. The precise role of mTwi is more speculative at this time, but the observed pattern of expression is consistent with a role in early and midmesodermal specification that is terminated as cells differentiate.
It has been established that regenerating marrow induces an osteogenic response in distant skeletal sites and that this activity is mediated by factors released into the circulation by the healing tissue. In the present study we have characterized one of these factors, a 14 amino acid peptide named osteogenic growth peptide (OGP). Synthetic OGP, identical in structure to the native molecule, stimulates the proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblastic cells in vitro and increases bone mass in rats when injected in vivo. Immunoreactive OGP in high abundance is present physiologically in the serum, mainly in the form of an OGP-OGP binding protein complex. A marked increase in serum bound and unbound OGP accompanies the osteogenic phase of post-ablation marrow regeneration and associated systemic osteogenic response. Authentic OGP is identical to the C-terminus of histone H4 and shares a five residue motif with a T-cell receptor beta-chain V-region and the Bacillus subtilis outB locus. Since these latter proteins have not been implicated previously in the control of cell proliferation or differentiation, OGP may belong to a novel, heretofore unrecognized family of regulatory peptides. Perhaps more importantly, OGP appears to represent a new class of molecules involved in the systemic control of osteoblast proliferation and differentiation.
We characterized the bone disease of transilial biopsy specimens from children with hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) and genetically related asymptomatic hypercalciuric subjects. All HHRH patients showed irregular mineralization fronts, markedly elevated osteoid surface and seam width, increased number of osteoid lamellae, and prolonged mineralization lag time. These findings are consistent with a mineralization defect and indicate unambiguously that the bone disease in HHRH is osteomalacia. The only abnormality seen in the asymptomatic hypercalciuric subjects was slightly extended osteoid surface. Parametric and nonparametric statistical analyses performed on a pooled sample of HHRH patients and asymptomatic hypercalciuric subjects revealed a very high inverse correlation and a tight linear relationship between serum phosphorus and osteoid parameters. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, which is low in other forms of hereditary hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia, is elevated in HHRH and correlated positively with osteoid parameters and the mineralization lag time. Serum alkaline phosphatase showed similar relationships. These results as well as the clinical, biochemical, and radiological remission of bone disease consequent to phosphate therapy strongly suggest that in HHRH 1) hypophosphatemia alone is sufficient to cause osteomalacia; and 2) the elevation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D reflects the degree of the primary renal phosphate leak, but is not involved in the pathogenesis of the bone disease.